@Stella: The short answer is yes. When a were is in one of their forms, it is biologically that form. If the child a were or not, and which type, is entirely dependent on the mother, and ignores the father.
The long answer will come later, when I have time to write it down... Prepare for another wall of text!
Ok. Time for the long answer, and then answers to potential questions beyond that. You have been warned. ;)
If you have any more questions, let me know, and I'll try to answer in a reasonable amount of space.
It is important to note that none of the following is "common knowledge" within the comic itself... I may at some point "contradict" myself by having a character say something different... If I did, either they lied, or were mistaken. This is more than the "author" of "On Magic and its Forms" is aware. (AKA my comments speaking as the author are in fact canon. "His" comments are true... as far as he is aware.)
Lycanthropy is spread through exactly one of two ways. Bite or blood. Bite is straightforward. If one bites you, and you survive, you will be turned in a few hours. Spit won't do it, a bite is actually required... teeth must come in contact with the victim's blood. Similarly, teeth from a were, or using the mouth of a dead were, will not work. Being turned by blood is much more difficult to occur. The blood must go from one bloodstream to the other, with no break in the stream, for this to occur. If the blood is removed from the were's body for literally any length of time, it loses its potency... even if it drips into an open wound, if there is a gap, they are safe. Practically speaking, this only happens through live birth, though an intentional direct blood transfusion is possible.
Men have no issues siring children. However, said children are likely going to be human. Unless he turns the mother, since he is biologically human, there would be no likely complications from him being a were. There are a number of reports of cases (in-story) of weres pretending to be human for years to decades at a time, just to remember what it was like... If they don't shift, their wives had no reason to be the wiser. Such children would on average be stronger and faster than normal, but this is simply because the father's DNA has been modified to be a stronger human himself. It would be no different than being born to a naturally athletic father. 100% human.
Women weres can have children as well... it just doesn't happen nearly as frequently. First of all, it takes about a month after her last transformation to be capable of conceiving... (I'm sure you can guess why) After that point, she can't transform for another few months, until the unborn child is strong enough to shift with her. The child will be a were, of the same sort that she is. The only difference between a born were and a turned were, is the born one doesn't (usually) go through the period of two distinct minds.
This probably sounds like a fairly arbitrary set of rules to be assigned to them. If you understand what a were really is, it'll hopefully make a bit more sense.
Any normal person has a mind, body and spirit, as described in the previous magic sections. (Note that "spirit" does NOT mean "soul". That is something different, and is not relevant for this discussion.) The 3 aspects are tied as tightly as force, energy and current are in physics.
Lycanthropy is not a biological disease that affects the body, or a psychological disease attacking the mind. (At least not directly) It is a parasite-like disease that attacks the spirit. It breaks off a small bit of spirit in one of those two very symbolic actions, small enough that it cannot survive on its own, and it attaches itself to the victim. The tiny spirit buries itself in, starts ripping at and eating its victims spirit, and ties itself in. It is fully instinctual. A were can't control it, it is a process that starts immediately upon a bite occurring. A were can NOT be of two types, from different bites. The host just wouldn't be able to survive it if bitten simultaneously, and lycanthropes gain defenses against it naturally.
The tiny spirit isn't malicious, at least at first. It does what it needs to do to survive. It doesn't really have a mind at first, until well into the process. When the victim notices another mind intruding upon his thoughts, it is way too late. At the end of the process, you end up with a single body, attached to a mangled spirit. The spirit ends up really having two sides to it, centered at the body, and two minds affecting it, one for each side. However, each mind doesn't necessarily control their own side, or necessarily only control one side, at any given time... (One of the most common forms of a "broken" mage is a were with each half pointing to a different aspect.) A were's shapeshifting ability comes from folding one side or the other of his spirit onto his body, causing the body to reflect that part of the spirit. Who controls the body is entirely dependent on which mind is dominate at the time...
Often there is a mental fight for domination, resulting in one mind or the other to split off and die. Occasionally it is over in days. Occasionally it takes decades. More often than not, it is a couple years before one of them gives up. It is also possible for them to get over it and coexist, though how common that is depends on the species. Bats can get along fine with their alternate, Wolves sometimes get an alpha/beta type situation, and sharks rarely have more than one mind for any length of time.
The final things I should probably explain while explaining all things lycanthrope is their forms and immortality. When a were changes form, the other form entirely ceises to exist. The entirety of their mass is converted and conserved in the process... sometimes resulting in smaller than average animals, but more often resulting in larger and denser humans. (skeletal and muscle mass) When changing back, it is effectively using the other half of the spirit as DNA and a blueprint. This blueprint is originally based on what their DNA was as a human, but it changes over time as they change as a person. Since the spirit is so strongly tied to the subconscious mind, and one rarely truly sees oneself as weak, feeble, or disabled, they won't be any of those things. Especially after being a were for any length of time. If one got injured, and it was not a wound that truly MEANT something to it, it would be completely healed when they turned back. (The bite marks are common to remain, trivial injuries are always gone, etc) If they never feel they SHOULD be old, they never will be, as long as they keep shifting. Since it is already ingrained into the were's society that they DON'T age, this means they WON'T age. (Yes, they have their own society. We won't see it for a while. Sorry.) This does not mean that a were can say "I believe I am the most powerful person in the world" and make it happen... However, it DOES mean that if one truly subconsciously believes that he is the most powerful person in the world, his muscles and bones will slowly become more efficient to match this belief. Unfortunately, arrogance is power.
As far as the immortality, is it aboslute? What I mean is, I understand that they won't age, but can they be killed? Also, if arrogance is power, what of depression? If a were is abandoned or betrayed & ends up with a poor attitudeas a result, could they wither and die as a result?
@Stella: It is possible to kill them... but it is difficult.
Stabbing them through the heart with a sword (and then pulling it out) wouldn't do it, as long as they aren't shocked too much to shift.
Silver doesn't help, though most people think it does.
Decapitation usually works, unless they are really quick on the draw, and shift half-way through the strike. (Or find another way around it)
The only known sure-fire way is to stick them completely through the body, through the heart or brain, and leave it there for long enough that shifting back and forth doesn't help... it is sort of horrifying, and a very messy process.
Stabbing them in the heart isn't immediate, because the entire body doesn't shut down the instant the heart stops. They are probably still stronger than you are, so could have enough time to rip the sword out of your hand, remove it, shift, and be perfectly fine. Pissed, but fine.
The head works better, but remember what I said about conservation of mass? A were's bone structure tends to be quite dense. Good luck with that.
Losing limbs does significantly annoy them... again, due to conservation of mass. Unless reattached via magic, (green or very powerful white) they will have less of themselves to throw around.
@Stella: And, yes. Both the good and the bad affect. A were's form will reflect their subconscious vision of their self. (The first change would be the most dramatic, the rest would be much more gradual)
I N F O R M A T I O N
On hiatus. Updating sporadically while the next arc is worked on.